Which has very old history of Trabzon, in 1461 by Mehmet the Conqueror conquered the Ottoman Empire joined Sutan.
Province of the Republic's founder, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk visited 3 times today, the social, economic and cultural center is. ... ...
The city center from the sea in the north, south, rises in terraces are not as smooth as on Boztepe. Degirmendere, Kuzgundere (or Tannery) and placement Zagnos streams from south to north, divided the deep straits. Tannery and Zagnos between streams and a high table in the form of non-uniform over an area of the city known eneski settlement remains have been identified. for this reason that the name of the former Trabzon Grekçe table or trapezoid / trapezium format as for "Trapezos" word view that is gaining weight. Trabzon, on behalf Trapezos the first time, the Greek commander, penned by Kesnophon, BC 4. Century, the events described in the "Anabasis" by the ancient sources are found.
BC Western Anatolia after the ion-based Miletoslular 7. The Black Sea coast in the coming century, colonial cities have set up. Trabzon, Sinop, which is the center of these colonies, and many researchers have considered, as the dryness of the city's first show of this period. But Kolkhlar, Driller, the macro from the indigenous tribes, such as has been previously lived in the vicinity of Trabzon.
Cimmerians from the Caucasus to the Black Sea in the same century, and their raids on the Scythians and then. However, these trends before or after the establishment of colonies in the debate. BC 6. Century, the sovereignty of the Persians by entering Trabzon, called a satrap of Cappadocia Pont remained inside.
BC Macedonian King Alexander the Great All in Anatolia in 334 put an end to the domination of Persia.
During the confusion after the sudden death of Alexander II Satrap Pont. Ariantes'in son of Mithridates, the Black Sea, Pontus, the State has established with the support of the local people. Trabzon, BC Remained within the borders of Pontus in 280 centers in Amasya.
BC I. Century, the occupation of Anatolia by the Romans in the west have begun to strength. Pompeius, the King of Pontus, the Roman king of the V. Kelkit valley defeat inflicted on the Kingdom of Pontus Mithridates distributed. Thus, Trabzon, BC Roman rule in 66 years, has entered. BC with Rome Avgustus'la Since 27 started the Empire period. Augustus as a result of administrative arrangement of Trabzon, have formed part of the Pontic Polemoniacus called vassalage, the emperor Tiberius (AD 14-37), the other an administrative department of the State of which remained within the borders of Cappadocia. In the period of the emperor Nero (54-68) has been acquired the privilege of being free city. During this period of Trabzon "famous" and "rich" definition, the city is located in the books of historians. Emphasis on the defense of the Roman Empire, the eastern limit of the time of Vespasian (69-79) in Trabzon, have been included in the state of Cappadocia-Galatia.
The famous Roman emperor Hadrian Era (117-138) as well as the entire empire in Trabzon, the major construction activities, HAS, many religious and military buildings and roads, aqueducts, and, until recently, an artificial port that can be seen the ruins of Hadrian was built after the Trabzon s heyday ended, 244 were deprived of jurisdiction in the printing of money. Trabzon printed on the front of the coins of the emperors of the Roman Period yüzlerindeRoma bust, but the reverse side has prevailed since the time of the kingdom of Pontus and his mythological figures given in the script has been used Grekçe.
Trabzon, in 276 raids on all the Eastern Black Sea region has been attacked by the Goths, the whole city has been destroyed in this attack. 4 the last period of the Roman Empire Diocletian Maximian at the beginning of the century, and Galerius'tan Constantinius timely administration of the quartet's home in Trabzon, Trabzon Museum of activities re-zoning of a team understand that a Latin inscription.
The Roman empire was divided into two in 395, Trabzon, Istanbul center of the Eastern Roman / Byzantine Empire remained within the borders. Byzantine emperor Justinian (527-564) restored the city walls in Trabzon ettirerek launched a new development activity. The time of Heraclius (610-641) the empire started to leave the military areas, Trabzon, Teophilos time (829-842) has been established Khaldia central theme.
8 Muslim Arabs Since the beginning of the century came to Trabzon on the Black Sea and Eastern Anatolia, organized raids.
IV of the Byzantine Empire in 1204. On expeditions into the hands of the Crusaders from the Latins, the emperor I. Andronikos Komnenos Alexios and David descendants who fled from Istanbul, with the help of the Georgian Queen Tamara founded the Kingdom of Trabzon Komnenos in 1204 as an independent. Anatolian Seljuks, and paying taxes by creating a political existence with the marriage bond, the Kingdom of sustaining Komnenos, I. The time of Manuel Comnenus (1238-1265) lived in the most brilliant period. Gumushane silver mines to the influence of economic strength in the coins of Manuel I, on the "most happy" is the title.
I. After receipt of the Kingdom of Trabzon Komnenos in 1398 Bayezid Samsun region to the Ottoman Empire were forced to pay an annual tax. David Komnenos, during his reign (1458-1461), pay taxes, by stopping the advance paid back through the Akkoyunlu State asked Sultan Uzun Hasan, the alliance made a proposal to the great states of Europe against the Ottomans. Forces led by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II laid siege to this region, conquered Trabzon in 1461 and put an end to the sovereignty of Komnenosların.
Trabzon, state or provincial ago during the Ottoman Period has been ruled by the prince and the Tenants. Khidr Bey ruler of the first flag. Prince Abdullah at a young age from starboard principality in 1470, Abdullah and his mother lived in Trabzon until 1479 with a cute Hatun. During the prince Sultan Selim I (1491-1512) were found to be PreviousNext Trabzon, which will subsequently the title son of Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent was born here.
Trabzon 16 century, the center of Batumi Lazistan converted and combined with the state became the center of this new administrative unit. Trabzon, a major fire in 1867, emerged, this time in a very public building, the city burned, and then re-arranged. Province was established in 1868, the banner outside the headquarters Lazistan, Gumushane, Canik Flags also connected here.
During the First World War, the Russians attacked Trabzon (April 14, 1916). Trabzonlulardan of the strike forces (militia), give the guerrilla warfare during this attack. This time, the ammunition to the front to be sent to the port of Trabzon Trabzon support Hamidiye battleship gençlerce Macka moved to pour in with great enthusiasm.
Çaykara'da Sultan Murat Plateau (June 10, 1916), Of'ta Baltacı Arsin'de Yambol successful wars against the Russians from creeks, but under the conditions of those years can not be prevented and the Russians are the enemy of Trabzon in Trabzon on 14 April l916 enters . Trabzon, where the Russians a year, ten months, ten-day period, especially the Greeks and Armenians, indigenous people make great torture, kill countless people.
Russia in 1917 "The Bolshevik Revolution," will, destroyed the Tsarist Administration. Then the Russian army begins a major panic. This leads to the Russians to withdraw from Trabzon. On the other hand, floating from west to east, and Montenegro, the Turkish Gangs collected, a three-pronged Akçaabat'a down under the command of Captain Hero Bey of Trabzon and 24 February 1918, they walk right into Trabzon.
Great Leader Ataturk, the Republican period, three times the income of Trabzon, l924, 1930 and 1937 years, when he first came on September 15, 1924, Trabzonlularca "ATATURK'S DAY" A wire is considered and reported this to him.
4,664 km2 and has a surface of Trabzon province, the Eastern Black Sea Mountains in the middle of the publication created by the mass of the mountainous north-facing slopes of the shields 38 ° 30 '- 40 ° 30' east meridians of longitude and 40 ° 30 '- 41 ° 30' north latitude and is one of the, north of the Black Sea, south Gümüşhane and Bayburt to the east of Rize, Giresun province west of there.
The main landforms of the province of Trabzon, south, east-west direction along the watershed areas of the mountains, in the bosom of their main stream, gradually descending towards the north and the hilly areas introduced in the field with important external factor is that the current şekillenlenmeyi Solakli, Yomra, Degirmendere, Greenhouse, Kalenima, formed by river valleys and deltas, such as Folder.
Geological formation, Upper Cretaceous stratigraphy from bottom to top in terms of fat, added intermediate volcanic sedimentary series, the conglomerate, fabric, marl, upper Miocene marine clay and lime stone and the series, gravelly, sandy, silty and clayey, sandy gravel with quaternary fatty terrace fills, silty, clayey, clayey river and coastal sediment shaped.
The valleys and hills, Rivers and Lakes
Valleys formed by rivers, especially the arms and the second-order streams, where the side sections very dardırlar involved in them. This feature is dominated by the majority of the site. Character of the area's humid climate, watersheds, and more freight transport is a fast-flowing, deep-abrasive played a major role. Which is vulnerable to wear tuff, agglomerate and limestone buildings, on the one hand konsekant vertical erosion accelerated in the arms perpendicular to develop "V"-shaped valleys formed, on the other hand, this also occurred on the slopes of the valleys and slopes of the secondary arms thoroughly slaugh increased their discharge activity. So today, in the field of vaccine dantritik drainage system consists of the valley descending towards the sea, sat a uniform. Even though you have moved into a small area of erosion debris near the base of valley slopes, the accumulation of low-, low-sloping plains formed part. At the same time suitable for carrying any of these areas.
Trabzon province, the most advanced valleys in the west, south-north direction from the Folder Valley, Degirmendere River on the southwest-northeast direction is installed Karadere Solakli River Valley and the eastern north-south valley that uzanış.
South, 1,900 m. Mountains and close to the water line portion of yükseltisindeki Horos and shields, north-facing slopes gradually deepened Macka Valley dates back to the beginning Degirmendere. Here the valley floor about 270 m. and 30 km was established. within 1,630 meters of altitude difference increased the slope of the high times. Macka valley suddenly narrowed, since both deep and expands from there to the north, stood out near Esiroğlu çığıra goes down.
East of the west of the province of Trabzon Değirmendere Karadere Folder and resources, and gutters Solakli Horos, Onions, and is Haldizen Mountains. Folder, Degirmendere, Karadere and Solakli creek basins in the south up to each other reaping the smaller river basins in the form Kalenima, Yambol Creek, Küçükdere and Manahos River, a short length and very narrow valleys meydaa bring fast flows. The occurrence of different rocks in the slope, roughness is a factor which reinforces the other. Sedimentary and volcanic sediment character, easy to carry aşınırken surfaces, volcanic rocks, exposing the normal slope along the slope surfaces have formed a high level.
lakes in the province of Tokat, set Uzungol landslide lake, Fish Lake, Stallion Lake, Black Lake and the mountains of Haldizen size, and small set of other glacial lakes and lake of Greenhouse landslide.
Rivers into the Black Sea, during the Pleistocene sea-level rise due to lower altitudes, significant effects were found on coastal erosion and deposition activities. Beds, 90 m yarmışlar up to the last post-glacial period, sea level rise depending on the aktıkları boşulmuş valleys, the sea, the valley mouths indentation made towards the land. Then silt brought by rivers, has led to the development of the shape of a valley filled. The most important of these is the length of the coast about 4 km from the Degirmendere Delta today., A 3.5 km extension into the valley. km2 and is close to area 7. In other deltas Vakfıkebir Fol Creek, Star Creek Greenhouse, Kalenima Söğütlü Creek, Yomra Yomra creek, creek, Yalıboyu Yambol, Karadere Arakli, Small Dere Cavuslu Down, Toggle Creek Manahos Of near the creek and created a more narrow alluvial düzlüklerdir Solakli.
Trabzon Province in the north polar air masses, the transition area is located on the south, tropical air masses. In winter, the Sun in the apparent movements, depending on the tropical south, falling Basınç'ın Yuksel, usually come from the north who had settled in Anatolia on the high point of land north of Siberia and Eastern Europe, located on the polar Antisiklonu'nun cava under the influence of the mass of property is a convergence area. However, the area close to the earth, winter temperatures, the presence in the north of the Black Sea and the coast extending from as close to the set because of the presence of the Eastern Black Sea Mountains, it becomes temperate latitudes when compared to other fields. Rainfall, near-shore areas, rain, snow is usually the middle and high areas.
In summer, sections of the atmosphere close to earth, the Azores High Pressure Low Pressure Centre Area extensions developed between the north and Basra sector carried moist air flows over the land masses and the Black Sea, coastal areas leads to precipitation orografk, from time to time inserted into the cool air raids in the north with the cold front also frequently seen torrential rains, the cold air drops in cases of high levels with plenty of great instability and unpredictable developments in the fall yağıılar. The average temperature during this season in the region around 18.8 ° C
Spring provides a smooth transition between winter and summer seasons, and plenty yağmurlarıyla noticeable, especially in areas close to the coast during these months has seen intense team-planting activities (Table-2). Spring season starts from March to show up, get into the months of April and May. This season, the average monthly temperatures of 15 ° C is on. Covers a period of approximately three months of the fall season is summer, but part of September, November, also features the relatively winter.
Actual pressure in the? Values for the annual running of Trabzon is looking to be the total value of 1011.1 MB. Pressure is lower than the other months during the summer months, whereas the annual average during the winter months is very little on.
frequencies of wind direction in our province, area of contact centers, movement of the pressure, in the shape of features and is under the influence of the Black Sea. Winds blowing from the north and south by land and sea breeze winds dominance feels way. Close to the sea areas south and southwest winds are more effective. Winds blow-dry February, March and April, are seen and may find an annual average of twelve days.
The amount of annual rainfall in the province of Trabzon in the course of the year, rainfall conditions in the area due to the formation of the Black Sea side, rising immediately from the shore of the Black Sea with a slope rising from the land surface temperature-dependent relationship between the main effective factor. To varying conditions of rainfall over short distances (microclimate areas) is an important feature of our region. Therefore, the need in our province and throughout the coastal and inland differences between the shows.
Rates are high relative humidity in summer, especially in the area and observed limit to expanding inland. This season the Black Sea north of the evaporation, when the air is calm and keep close to the shore segments under the influence of the low pressure center over time, moving towards the southern areas of high winds, thanks to Mary, moved here because of the moisture directly from the highland areas, which often continues until noon on a clear open- valleys throughout the state of the weather, then rising water vapor, completely covering the pitch, and sometimes for days çekilmemektedir.
Mountainous areas, the East-West line had been broken, the North Black Sea coast as springs which form an anticlinal axis. Character of the region's highest mountain, from the end of the Permian and Upper Cretaceous that lasted until the end of the regime of land and has formed as a result of the upper Pliyosen'deki vertical movements, took the form of Pleistocene.
East-West direction from the highest part of the water line is part of the Mountains to the east Haldizen. This is also the Eastern Black Sea Mountains, the highest mountains to the west part of the recent extensions of the Kaçkars. Upper Cretaceous rocks in oil revenues. Significant elevations; Demirkapı (3,376 meters), rest harrow (3156 m) and King (3139 m) hills.
One moves towards the glacial valleys of the peaks showing the distribution of almost every valley, about twenty, some of them one by one after another gideşenle interconnected glacial lakes located in areas ranging from 100-1900 m2 wide. Karagol, Sarigöl, Fish Lake and Stallion can be considered as the most important of lakes. Demirkapı, North slopes of these mountains are right and Multat streams resources. Each one of the board of the glacial valleys of the rivers undersized. Side starts to receive streams of approximately 2000 m. To the north, with the increasing levels of fluvial topography from the moving forces begin to announce themselves thoroughly. Important tributary creek to the east Solakli Haldizen Creek, Demirkapı, right, and brooks, with the participation of the North, 1,150 m. Multat Uzungöl reaches levels. Continuing on from here under the name Black Creek Solakli confused.
Further west of the fault is a thrust from the mass of bulbous mountains between the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene oil rhyolite and dacitic lava porfiridasitlerin infiltrate occurred. That make up the Great River Creek Creek Solakli Haldizen with an average of 2,500 m. High level of the plateau is located in a very large, bulbous mountains alçaldığı connecting these areas inland of the coast-Çaykara-Bayburt road is the gateway. Belt section of water line to the west, Mount (2746 m) and Visit Peak (2850 m) and continues. This line is also part of the water line in the south constitutes Karadere. Sector, which extends inland to the north junction of the right arm of Karadere Yağmurdere watershed, extending to the southwest to encompass the handle portion of the water line reaches Degirmendere Basin. Black Sea coast road south, along the left Karadere Dağbaşı Arakli-road, falling water, part of the area around Stone Bridge to the south line reaches Gümüşhane.
Basin along the southern portion of the water line Degirmendere Costa Mountain (2582 m). Ogee over (3082 m). Kolat Mountains and descending the mountains beyond Zigana creates a shoulder. Here, 2,000 m. Level, from the Black Sea coast is an important geo-strategic gateway to the inner regions of Trabzon-Iran transit road slippery surface. Mountain peaks to the south of Trabzon province in this section has recesses.
Mountains in the western part of the mountainous areas to create shields and Horos and a diminishing level of overall height. Ruinous Church Hill (1784 m), TaşTepesi (2,420 m), Ayeser Peak (2423 m.), the western flank of the publication, Shielded Peak (2,193 m) makes up the eastern flank. These mountains are called shields were completely pedestrian. Mountains in the northwest-southeast direction from the Horos 10 ° - 15 ° slope. Macka involved in the main stream akarsuyuna Degirmendere southwest, fountains with the name of the source of River Hill in the southern foothills of Tasoluk while Ayeser Creek, Horos Mountains Emerging from the water line portion to the north a shallow "V"-shaped cliff, with a valley (2,349 m) Ayeser tops and separates. All of the mountainous mass of 2,000 m. This is over. Mechanical erosion of the rivers that are effective as of the parts close to the summits, especially outside the 2,400 m 's are located on the konjelifraksiyon domination. The northern slopes of the hill slope streams of mechanical effects due to increase in the gap also increased. provincial borders in this region about 2,000 meters pass levels. Horos peaks of mountains to the west line of falling in this section shall continue until Erikbeli Plateau.
Cross-sections of the mountainous valleys of the mass, which continues to the north and the side streams that gradually narrowed considerably mutilated. For this reason, the hilly areas, falling from south to north elevations of the water portion of the adjacent lines is followed by havzalarla.
Karadere with the major rivers of the hills from east to west between the Haldizen Madore Peak (2742 m.), Polot Peak (2.880 m), visiting the Peak (2829 m.), Seslikaya Peak (2117 m.), Gümüşki Peak (2375 m.) , Montenegro (1946 m.), Oba Peak (1951 m.), Güzelyayla Peak (1945 m) and Anthony Taylor Peak (1410 m) the interior portions of watersheds, river arms inserted between the right show a distribution. Fact that the western tributaries at least, this area has led to less fragmentation.
One of the geomorphological elements of the province of Trabzon in the mass movements. These are based on the size of landslides, earth flows and soliflüksiyondur. Trabzon province is extremely important in shaping the basic reason for the formation of mass movements of soil structure. The lavas and tuffs are the dominant materials are slit and their bodies because of the cracks are more or less water conduction. Although still common in the tuffs contain pores large extent. Receive more precipitation in the region is quite hot and humid fact, decomposite cause rocks to the depths, while the overall slope, slopes of 25 ° - 30 ° on the fact that the total rainfall in the months and year-end values in the specific amounts to reach close to the mass movements are encouraged. To date, the most important of landslides that have occurred; Çaykara-Grand Mosque (1929, 146 dead), Greenhouse (1949), Macka-Catak (1988, 63 dead), Sındıran (1990) and King and Poplar Landslide.
Macka Macka's in the northwest of the village as an example akmalarında Ormanüstü soil slopes of the foothills overlooking the creek and south of the pitches can be a little more.
The valley slopes are very steep and the slope Soliflüksiyonu and hamlets with the plateau.
The vertical dimension of the field variable in all seasons in temperate and rainy climate, the vegetation of different species, gave rise to generations of vegetation of different species. Accordingly, 0-300 m. yükseltilerinden psöudomaki infiltrate into the Mediterranean plant species (persimmon, maple, boxwood, cherry laurel, laurel, prekanta, medlar, juniper tar, strawberry ... etc.) showing distribution of elements, circles close to the shore from the broad-leaved forests located in the skirt (alder, chestnut, oak species , ash, linden, common hazel, white willow, poplar, east, such as Plane Tree ...), on the floor leaves a large wide-dominated mixed coniferous forests (European chestnut, common alder, hornbeam, common hazel, eastern horn, oak, maple , rowan, ÇİTLENBİK, laurel, purple flowered rhododendron, beech, spruce and fir) and also above the forests dominated by conifers (pine, spruce, rhododendron, and some of the purple flowering shrub species) shows that distribution.
Down to the entire forest area, near the coastal areas of generation, higher-elevation levels in the residential and agricultural area in spite of interruptions of açmalarıyla, 500-1850 m. between the heights of the rich and dense forest cover still exists. If higher levels are not suitable for the growth of trees physiologically Alpine meadow areas. No economic activity is not possible because of the harsh climatic conditions in winter, this large area, not far from permanent settlements, the local people in terms of livestock is a potentially offers an extremely convenient. The most important reason for secession from other alanlardakinden hayvacılığın this floor, the grass green throughout the season, could have remained yz. Because the water vapor from the sea grass meadows can become when the vitality yitirmemekte and even protection. Thus, in the local farming of cattle (beef) and permanent residential areas have gained importance in the nutritional insufficient to support team-harvesting function, the majority has become an alternative source of livelihood.
Turkey's first census, the population of the province of Trabzon in 1927, with 293,055 the previous 73 year period up to the 2000 census, approximately 3.3-fold increase in the 975,137 'reached. During the same period increased by approximately 5 times the population of Turkey 13,648,270 from 67,803,927 amounted to.
the province's population, 975,137 according to the 2000 General Population Census results are. 478,954 population in cities (49.12%), the 496,195 population of the villages (50.88%), respectively. 283,233 population in the Central district 'roll.
According to the 2000 census the total population as of the 19th of the 81 cities of Trabzon, as population in the province center 25'incidir.
According to the 2000 Population Census of Trabzon, Black Sea Region in the majority of the population in terms of the 14 provinces of Samsun after the 2nd place. A total of 8,439,213 people live in the region. 12:44% of the total population of Turkey in this population 'fame poses.
Values according to the results of Census 2000 population growth rate, per thousand for the whole Turkey, 18:28, 3.65 per thousand for the Black Sea Region, for the thousandth 20:31 Trabzon is. According to the CIS in general, high rate of population growth appear in Trabzon province's economy in recent years, considerable vitality, accelerated the return of the population.
The population ages 6 and up (874 962) according to the 2000 Population Census, 439,142 women? By 356,316 percent (81.13%), 435,820 to 417,933 men-third (95.88%), reading and writing is fluent. Accordingly, the read-write the number of those who knew the 774,249 (88.49%), and the illiteracy in the 100,702 (11,51%), dir.