11 Temmuz 2011 Pazartesi

BC I. Century, the occupation of Anatolia by the Romans in the west have begun to strength. Pompeius, the King of Pontus, the Roman king of the V. Kelkit valley defeat inflicted on the Kingdom of Pontus Mithridates distributed. Thus, Trabzon, BC Roman rule in 66 years, has entered. BC with Rome Avgustus'la Since 27 started the Empire period. Augustus as a result of administrative arrangement of Trabzon, have formed part of the Pontic Polemoniacus called vassalage, the emperor Tiberius (AD 14-37), the other an administrative department of the State of which remained within the borders of Cappadocia. In the period of the emperor Nero (54-68) has been acquired the privilege of being free city. During this period of Trabzon "famous" and "rich" definition, the city is located in the books of historians. Emphasis on the defense of the Roman Empire, the eastern limit of the time of Vespasian (69-79) in Trabzon, have been included in the state of Cappadocia-Galatia.
Valleys formed by rivers, especially the arms and the second-order streams, where the side sections very dardırlar involved in them. This feature is dominated by the majority of the site. Character of the area's humid climate, watersheds, and more freight transport is a fast-flowing, deep-abrasive played a major role. Which is vulnerable to wear tuff, agglomerate and limestone buildings, on the one hand konsekant vertical erosion accelerated in the arms perpendicular to develop "V"-shaped valleys formed, on the other hand, this also occurred on the slopes of the valleys and slopes of the secondary arms thoroughly slaugh increased their discharge activity. So today, in the field of vaccine dantritik drainage system consists of the valley descending towards the sea, sat a uniform. Even though you have moved into a small area of ​​erosion debris near the base of valley slopes, the accumulation of low-, low-sloping plains formed part. At the same time suitable for carrying any of these areas.
Rivers into the Black Sea, during the Pleistocene sea-level rise due to lower altitudes, significant effects were found on coastal erosion and deposition activities. Beds, 90 m yarmışlar up to the last post-glacial period, sea level rise depending on the aktıkları boşulmuş valleys, the sea, the valley mouths indentation made towards the land. Then silt brought by rivers, has led to the development of the shape of a valley filled. The most important of these is the length of the coast about 4 km from the Degirmendere Delta today., A 3.5 km extension into the valley. km2 and is close to area 7. In other deltas Vakfıkebir Fol Creek, Star Creek Greenhouse, Kalenima Söğütlü Creek, Yomra Yomra creek, creek, Yalıboyu Yambol, Karadere Arakli, Small Dere Cavuslu Down, Toggle Creek Manahos Of near the creek and created a more narrow alluvial düzlüklerdir Solakli.
Trabzon Province in the north polar air masses, the transition area is located on the south, tropical air masses. In winter, the Sun in the apparent movements, depending on the tropical south, falling Basınç'ın Yuksel, usually come from the north who had settled in Anatolia on the high point of land north of Siberia and Eastern Europe, located on the polar Antisiklonu'nun cava under the influence of the mass of property is a convergence area. However, the area close to the earth, winter temperatures, the presence in the north of the Black Sea and the coast extending from as close to the set because of the presence of the Eastern Black Sea Mountains, it becomes temperate latitudes when compared to other fields. Rainfall, near-shore areas, rain, snow is usually the middle and high areas.
One moves towards the glacial valleys of the peaks showing the distribution of almost every valley, about twenty, some of them one by one after another gideşenle interconnected glacial lakes located in areas ranging from 100-1900 m2 wide. Karagol, Sarigöl, Fish Lake and Stallion can be considered as the most important of lakes. Demirkapı, North slopes of these mountains are right and Multat streams resources. Each one of the board of the glacial valleys of the rivers undersized. Side starts to receive streams of approximately 2000 m. To the north, with the increasing levels of fluvial topography from the moving forces begin to announce themselves thoroughly. Important tributary creek to the east Solakli Haldizen Creek, Demirkapı, right, and brooks, with the participation of the North, 1,150 m. Multat Uzungöl reaches levels. Continuing on from here under the name Black Creek Solakli confused.
Further west of the fault is a thrust from the mass of bulbous mountains between the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene oil rhyolite and dacitic lava porfiridasitlerin infiltrate occurred. That make up the Great River Creek Creek Solakli Haldizen with an average of 2,500 m. High level of the plateau is located in a very large, bulbous mountains alçaldığı connecting these areas inland of the coast-Çaykara-Bayburt road is the gateway. Belt section of water line to the west, Mount (2746 m) and Visit Peak (2850 m) and continues. This line is also part of the water line in the south constitutes Karadere. Sector, which extends inland to the north junction of the right arm of Karadere Yağmurdere watershed, extending to the southwest to encompass the handle portion of the water line reaches Degirmendere Basin. Black Sea coast road south, along the left Karadere Dağbaşı Arakli-road, falling water, part of the area around Stone Bridge to the south line reaches Gümüşhane.
Mountains in the western part of the mountainous areas to create shields and Horos and a diminishing level of overall height. Ruinous Church Hill (1784 m), TaşTepesi (2,420 m), Ayeser Peak (2423 m.), the western flank of the publication, Shielded Peak (2,193 m) makes up the eastern flank. These mountains are called shields were completely pedestrian. Mountains in the northwest-southeast direction from the Horos 10 ° - 15 ° slope. Macka involved in the main stream akarsuyuna Degirmendere southwest, fountains with the name of the source of River Hill in the southern foothills of Tasoluk while Ayeser Creek, Horos Mountains Emerging from the water line portion to the north a shallow "V"-shaped cliff, with a valley (2,349 m) Ayeser tops and separates. All of the mountainous mass of 2,000 m. This is over. Mechanical erosion of the rivers that are effective as of the parts close to the summits, especially outside the 2,400 m 's are located on the konjelifraksiyon domination. The northern slopes of the hill slope streams of mechanical effects due to increase in the gap also increased. provincial borders in this region about 2,000 meters pass levels. Horos peaks of mountains to the west line of falling in this section shall continue until Erikbeli Plateau.
One of the geomorphological elements of the province of Trabzon in the mass movements. These are based on the size of landslides, earth flows and soliflüksiyondur. Trabzon province is extremely important in shaping the basic reason for the formation of mass movements of soil structure. The lavas and tuffs are the dominant materials are slit and their bodies because of the cracks are more or less water conduction. Although still common in the tuffs contain pores large extent. Receive more precipitation in the region is quite hot and humid fact, decomposite cause rocks to the depths, while the overall slope, slopes of 25 ° - 30 ° on the fact that the total rainfall in the months and year-end values ​​in the specific amounts to reach close to the mass movements are encouraged. To date, the most important of landslides that have occurred; Çaykara-Grand Mosque (1929, 146 dead), Greenhouse (1949), Macka-Catak (1988, 63 dead), Sındıran (1990) and King and Poplar Landslide.
The vertical dimension of the field variable in all seasons in temperate and rainy climate, the vegetation of different species, gave rise to generations of vegetation of different species. Accordingly, 0-300 m. yükseltilerinden psöudomaki infiltrate into the Mediterranean plant species (persimmon, maple, boxwood, cherry laurel, laurel, prekanta, medlar, juniper tar, strawberry ... etc.) showing distribution of elements, circles close to the shore from the broad-leaved forests located in the skirt (alder, chestnut, oak species , ash, linden, common hazel, white willow, poplar, east, such as Plane Tree ...), on the floor leaves a large wide-dominated mixed coniferous forests (European chestnut, common alder, hornbeam, common hazel, eastern horn, oak, maple , rowan, ÇİTLENBİK, laurel, purple flowered rhododendron, beech, spruce and fir) and also above the forests dominated by conifers (pine, spruce, rhododendron, and some of the purple flowering shrub species) shows that distribution.
Down to the entire forest area, near the coastal areas of generation, higher-elevation levels in the residential and agricultural area in spite of interruptions of açmalarıyla, 500-1850 m. between the heights of the rich and dense forest cover still exists. If higher levels are not suitable for the growth of trees physiologically Alpine meadow areas. No economic activity is not possible because of the harsh climatic conditions in winter, this large area, not far from permanent settlements, the local people in terms of livestock is a potentially offers an extremely convenient. The most important reason for secession from other alanlardakinden hayvacılığın this floor, the grass green throughout the season, could have remained yz. Because the water vapor from the sea grass meadows can become when the vitality yitirmemekte and even protection. Thus, in the local farming of cattle (beef) and permanent residential areas have gained importance in the nutritional insufficient to support team-harvesting function, the majority has become an alternative source of livelihood.

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